1. Describe how the quest for resources, new trade routes and missionary impulse created new nautical achievements that led to the exploration of the globe.
- They started building stronger ships
- They added rudders to the back of their boats
- They used astrolabes and magnetic compasses to navigate
- Added a new type of sail to use in crosswinds
- Started keeping track of wind patterns to get places more efficiently
- A new strategy, the volta do mar, was created to avoid sailing against the wind
- Compasses and astrolabes were replaced by cross staffs and black staffs
2. Explain the contributions of Henry the Navigator.
- He himself never actually went on any voyages, but he was a patron of navigators, explorers, and map makers
- His expeditions travelled down the west African Coast
- His main focus with expeditions was trade, along with many other purposes
- Made a court specially for those who centered in travel and trade
- The naval observatory he established is one of his most important contribution to exploration
- He was determined to discover a route to India that travelled south and around the southern tip of Africa
3. Analyze the depth of the Portuguese Trade Port Empire.
- Portuguese took early lead
- Tried to control completely control trade in the Indian Ocean
- Afonso d' Alboquerque set up safe-conduct passes policy
- Couldn't completely control trade because there was a lack of men
4. Describe the incursion of the Spanish and Dutch into South East Asia.
- Spanish came into control of Philippines, and the Dutch controlled Indonesia
- Spanish focused on silk trade and spreading Christianity
- Relied on Chinese merchants for the wealth they brought to major trading centers like Manila
- Dutch focused on spice trade
- They wanted to control all spice trade and production so they established a VOC monopoly over it, and profited highly
5. Evaluate the importance of the Seven Years war.
- Pitted Britain against Frances
- Caused over trade and colonial expansion
- First world war, you can argue
- End of war put Britain in position to control and create a massive empire and dominate world trade.
6. Evaluate the Colombian Exchange.
- The Columbian Exchange was the global diffusion of plants, food crops, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens
- It was caused by the voyages of exploration from Christopher Columbus and other European mariners
- Crops, animals, and diseases were transported between the Old World and the New World and they had both positive and negative effects (and some vice versa)
- Overall, the human population increased as a result of the Columbian exchange
- The biological changes that occurred because of the Columbian exchange were very significant and important and even had an impact on us today